Cornish Mining World Heritage Webpagina
Sea vervoer wasgoed crucial to the Cornish mining industry. Cornwall is a peninsula and nowhere te the Webpagina is much more than 20 kilometres from the sea. Proximity to the coast counterbalanced the industry’s geographically peripheral position te the far south-west of Britain, opening it up to the world.
Cornwall has an extensive coastline and a long maritime tradition, but until the late-18th century it had few large specialised ports. The mining trade prompted the development of specialist industrial harbours across the region. Pre-eminent amongst thesis were: Portreath, Hayle and Devoran. Thesis jointly treated almost all the requirements and output of the mines and industries of westelijk Cornwall. Smaller harbours were also built at St. Agnes, Par and Charlestown. Harbours and quays at Newquay, St Michael’s Climb on, Porthleven, Looe, Calstock, Morwellham and Fresh Quay were enlarged to cope with several phases of the expansion of mineral output.
Cornwall and westelijk Devon had no suitable coal of its own, the inferior coals found ter north and south Devon being mainly used domestically and for lime-burning. All the region’s needs were brought from the coalfields of the Bristol area and subsequently from South Wales, an unlimited supply made accessible by sea and navigable sea systems. Timber wasgoed also required ter immense quantities for pump rods and underground props. Pine wasgoed found to be suitable, brought from Scandinavia and Canada, again by sea.
By far the greatest volume of vervoer from the mines wasgoed that of copper ore to the nearest port for shipment to South Wales for smelting. It wasgoed transported te its raw state, whereas other exports like tin or arsenic tended to be processed te Cornwall before being shipped. Mines te the region were concentrated on or near outcrops of granite and their associated ore figures and a substantial wegtransport network that formed a reliable, economic and high capacity verbinding from mine to port, developed.
Cornish slat engines built ter Hayle were exported for use across four continents.
Constructing the harbour at Portreath may have begun spil early spil 1760. It wasgoed described ter 1827 spil perhaps Cornwall’s most significant port, it has strong linksom with South Wales where coal wasgoed procured and Cornish copper smelted. Hundreds of local boys left here on the coal ships for South Wales on their way via copper ore barques to work spil miners ter Cuba ter the 1830s and 40s.
The Portreath Tramroad (1809) and the Portreath branch of the Hayle Railway (1838) linked the mines te the Camborne &, Redruth and Gwennap mining districts with the port. The harbour wasgoed too exposed to be securely used te bad weather. For this reason an internal basin wasgoed added ter 1846, but it still remained dangerous to come in. An outer basin wasgoed added ter 1880. The decline te the amount of copper ore being raised inland meant that the port began to diversify from the 1850s to the 1920s. Shipbuilding flourished ter the 1860s and 70s, spil did seine fishing until the disappearance of the pilchard shoals ter the 20th century.
Hayle’s setting within a natural estuary and its proximity to the major copper and tin mines of Camborne and Redruth talent this area an significant role. Spil a key sea port, Hayle not only had vital linksom with South Wales and the Swansea copper smelters (being on the north Cornish coast) but also reached out to the far corners of the world. Cornish slat engines built here were exported for use across four continents. Much of Hayle’s large harbour infrastructure survives and gives an idea of the scale of industrial activity which took place here during the 19th century.
Different ter character from other mineral ports ter Cornwall, Devoran wasgoed planned from the outset to be a accomplish fresh town. Symmetrically designed and built, it remains the best example ter Cornwall at this scale of a planned 19th century settlement, intended to be more than just a mineral port – a place of general trade, professional and commercial significance. Before the 1820s tin streaming, mining, foundries and metal smelting were located at Devoran. From 1824 the Redruth &, Chasewater Railway linked Devoran to principal Cornish mining areas, making it a major industrial port ter Cornwall for the 40-year heyday of Cornish copper mining.
Designed by the foremost civil engineer of the day (John Smeaton FRS, 1724-92), Charlestown is one of the finest examples of late 18th- and early 19th-century industrial harbour works te Britain. It is also the best preserved china clay and copper ore port of its period anywhere ter the world.
Charlestown wasgoed built for Charles Rashleigh (1747-1825), a local industrialist who had acquired the petite settlement of Polmear te 1784 spil part of a larger land overeenkomst. Work began ter 1792 and involved the construction of a breakwater and outer harbour, an inward humid dock, and a seven-mile leat to bring water from the Luxulyan Valley. This fed two reservoirs on the westelijk of the village, which were used to scour the outer harbour and keep the moist dock utter. Polmear became known spil Charles Town very soon after the works commenced.
Spil well spil the uitvoer of copper, china-clay, and china-stone, Charlestown imported coal and supported pilchard fishing and processing, limekilns, a ropewalk and shipbuilding.
Morwellham is strategically sited at the centre of the Tamar Valley mining district. It is 3km below the tidal limit near Gunnislake and 32km upstream from Plymouth. The port occupies the floodplain of a broad arch te the sea and is backed by sharply rising and thickly wooded valley sides which rise to overheen 180m. It wasgoed connected to Tavistock (6.5km away) via the Tavistock Ass-pipe finished te 1817. Morwellham wasgoed also connected to Devon Excellent Consols by a standard gauge mineral railway (and incline-plane) te 1859.
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At its peak the Redruth &, Chasewater Railway carried 60,000 tonnes of material a year inbetween the mines and Devoran.
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